The remains of the defensive walls
Pozostałości miejskich murów obronnych
The city walls were built in the second half of the 14th century, combining them with the fortifications of the Warmia Chapter Castle. They were constructed with full brick, on a foundation of stone. Their height reached to 9m and the thickness ranged from 1.6 to 2m. There were three gates through which one could get to the walls: the Dolna, Młyńska or Górna gates. The only one preserved to this day is the last one, which since the 19th century has been called the High Gate. Within the walls there are also several bastions. In the 16th century, a lower string of walls with the basteis from the north and east side were added to adapt the system of fortifications to defend against firearms. At the end of the 18th century the walls ceased to have defensive functions and they stared to be pulled down. Beyond their precinct, the city buildings arose in the early 19th century. The most impressive remains of the walls, partially reconstructed, have been preserved near St James’s basilica. There is a string of buildings, along the Łyna River, for which parts of the walls are a construction element. Fair-size relics have survived at the foot of the castle and by Asnyka and Okopowa streets. Other remains of the fortifications were discovered during excavations in front of the High Gate and Staszica street.